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With复合结构与独立主格结构  

2014-06-20 11:56:30|  分类: 高中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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我们在阅读或在翻译一些文章的时候经常会碰到“With + 独立主格”结构,这一结构并不是一个独立的单句,但其句法作用却相当于一个单句,大多数情况下它在句子中充当状语,可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式、伴随状况、附加说明等等。这一结构在句子中即可以放在句首,也可以放在句尾。With 后面的独立主格结构(Absolute Construction)是由名词(也可以是代词)加现在分词、过去分词、介词短语、形容词、副词、不定式等构成。下面根据with 后独立主格所涉及到的成分通过例句的形式对这一结构加以说明。

1.      With +名词+过去分词

§         They left with most of their work undone.

(大部分的工作还没有做他们就离开了)

§         The year 2000 ended with nothing settled.

(2000年过去了,什么也没有解决)

§         The prisoner was brought in with his hands tied and feet chained.

(囚犯被带了  

  进来,手被捆着,脚被锁链锁着。)

§         The shopping bag ladies wear layers of clothes, with newspapers 

stuffed between the layers as further protection against cold.

(流浪女穿着一层层的衣服,层与层之间还塞满了报纸来进一步抵御严寒)

2.      With + 名词+现在分词

§     She stood on the top of the hill with her hair flowing in the breeze.

(她站在小山顶上,长发在微风中飘拂)

§     I was about to declare myself here in Southampton with trains    

rattling overhead.(在南安普敦,火车在我上面的铁轨上隆隆作响,我就要表明我自己的身份,开始拉琴卖艺了。)

§          With economy recovering, people’s living standard is improving.

(随着经济的复苏,人民的生活水平也在改善)

3.      With+名词+介词短语

§ He stood on a big rock with his face towards the rough sea.

(他站在一块儿大岩石上,面朝着波涛汹涌的大海)

§ They stood with their arms round each other.

(他们站在那里,相互拥抱着)

§  His wife came down the stairs, with her one-year-old son in her arms.

(他

   的妻子走下楼来,怀里抱着她那个一岁的儿子)

 

4.      With+名词+形容词

§     Even in winter he still slept with the window open. 

(即使在冬天,他仍然开着窗户睡觉)

§     With chairman of the board seriously ill, we had to cancel the meeting.

(由于董事长病的很严重,所以我们只好取消了这次会议)

§      With the weather unbearably hot, we had to have our air-conditioner working all the time。

(由于天气热得令人难以忍受,所以我们只得一直开着空调)

5.             With+名词+副词

§       With two people away ill, we’ll have to close the office this afternoon.

(由于两人有病没来,今天下午我们不得不停止办公)

§       Her three children lay on the bed with all their clothes on.

(她的三个孩子穿着衣服躺床上)

§       The child was free to do everything with her mother not in.

(母亲没在家,这个孩子可以自由地做一切事情)

6.  With+名词+不定式短语

§     With a lot of work to do, I don’t know whether I have time to go to the concert with you.(有这么多的工作要做,我不知道是否有时间和你一起去听音乐会)

§     I really did not have time to relax with so many small children to 

 look after.

(有很多的小孩儿要照顾,我真的没有时间去放松一下)

§     I can’t go out with a lot of dishes to wash。

(有这么多的盘子要洗,我出不去)

 


With复合结构与独立主格结构 

with复合结构与独立主格结构是英语中常见的两种结构形式。从某种意义上说,它们可以算作是非谓语动词用法的延伸。它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状况状语、条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用,一般也可以相互转换。虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同,但其结构形式和名称却不相同。抓住这一点,就可以把二者融会贯通,从而在阅读中减少不必要的理解障碍。
     With复合结构的模式是:with+名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语)
     独立主格结构的模式是:主格名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语)
     请看下例:
     一、作时间状语
     1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.
        =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.
     2、With our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday.
         =Our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday.
     3、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving.
         =The traffic light green, the bus got moving.
     4、With the wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel.
         =The wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel.
     二、作原因状语
     5、With it being Sunday, the library was closed.
         =It being Sunday, the library was closed.
     6、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
         =The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
     7、With us to care for the children you are able to be carefree away from home.
     =We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.

(注意此处的we 不得改成us,用了us便不是独立主格结构了。)
     8、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
        =The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
     三、作条件状语
     1、With time permitting(许可),we’ll visit the Summer Palace.
        =Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace.
     2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
        =The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
     四、作伴随状况状语
     1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed.
        =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.
     2、He wore a shirt with the neck open.
        =He wore a shirt, the neck open.
     3、Last night I followed him, and climbed in, with a sword in my hand.
        =Last night I followed him and climbed in, sword in hand.
     4、He sat there thinking, with his head on his hand.
        =He sat there thinking, head on hand.
    注意:

若with复合结构在句中作伴随状况状语,且结构模式又是“with+名词+介词短语”,那么with复合结构转换成独立主格结构时,介词前后的两个名词就应该用单数形式且不带包括冠词在内的任何限定词。上述句3、句4便是例证。
     无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构,都不可有动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中的was就必须去掉:He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.
     这两种结构在句中作时间、条件或原因状语时,分别与表示时间、条件或原因的状语从句同义。例如:
     Time permitting; we will visit the Yellow Mountain.=If time permits we will visit the Yellow Mountain.
     It being Sunday, people got up late that day.=As it was Sunday people got up late that day.
     T
he meeting over, we all went home.=When the meeting was over we all went home.     With复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词,而独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词。例如:

     Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. 

   =Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.

    有趣的是,这两种结构可以结合起来合适,并表现出独立主格的特色来。例如:
    In the park, the tourists are enjoying different kinds of trees, some with a single branch growing as high as 15 meters.(游客们在公园里观赏各种树木,有些树的单枝就高达15米。)句中“some+with…”是独立主格结构,而with后面又带有自己的复合结构。
     The boys are playing with snow, each with a face red with cold.(孩子们在打雪仗,个个脸蛋都冻得通红。)在句中,“each+with…”是独立主格结构,而with后面又带有自己的复合结构。
     切记,后面能带复合结构的介词只有with, without和like。这样用的without和like可见于下例中:
     The man who saved the money died without anyone knowing where the coins were hidden.
     An animal having black stripes (斑纹) like the Chinese character“王”shown on the forehead (前额) must be tiger.
     The pine tree still stood there like an umbrella covering the entrance to the valley .


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