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than的用法  

2014-06-18 09:52:22|  分类: 高频词汇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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有关than的结构及其变式的考查在近几年的高考试题和课本中经常出现,是学习中的一个难点和重点。了解其形式特征并掌握其意义用法对我们的解题会有莫大的帮助。现结合部分考题对与than有关的句型结构作个详细的论述和总结归纳。 
  ㈠ more than 结构 
  ⑴ more than相当于over,表示“多于……;超过……”的意思。例如: 
  More than 200 people had to be helped to safety when the stadium collapsed. 体育馆倒塌后,有200多人不得不被扶到安全地带。 
   ⑵ more ... than ... 引导比较状语从句表示“比……多;比……更加……或与其说……倒不如说……”的意思。例如: 
  ① Many companies use computers more than they used to.许多公司比过去更多地使用电脑。 
  ② In some places bottled water costs more than a glass of beer.在有些地方瓶装水比一杯啤酒还贵。 
  ③ Don’t be too hard on him. He’s more cheated than stupid.别对他太苟刻了,与其说他愚蠢倒不如说他被欺骗了。 
  考题: 
  —Did you take enough money with you? 
  —No, I needed _________ I thought I would. (2006全国卷Ⅱ) 
  A. not so much as B. as much as 
  C. much more than D. much less than 
  解析: C。本题考查比较级,因为前面有no提示,故应使用much more than结构,意为“比……多得多”。 
  ⑶ more than + 名词 / 动词 / 从句形式表“远远;不只是;不仅仅是”的意思。例如: 
  Yao Ming has more than just size; he also has great skill and speed and he is a team player. 姚明不只是拥有身高,还有优秀的技术和团队合作精神。(人教高一上unit 8 P55) 
  考题: 
  —Do you need any help, Lucy? 
  —Yes, the job is __________ I could do myself. (2007福建卷) 
  A. less than B. more than 
  C. no more than D. not more than 
  解析: B。根据题意“你需要帮助吗?是的,这份工作远不是我一个人能完成的”可知more than最为恰当。 
  ⑷ be more than (a little) + 形容词表“十分;非常“的意思。例如: 
  The store is more than happy to deliver goods to your home.本商店很乐意为你送货上门。 
  考题: 
  Lizzie was ____________ to see her friend off at the airport. (2004全国卷Ⅲ)
  A. a little more than sad 
  B. more than a little sad 
  C. sad more than a little 
  D. a little more than sad 
  解析: B。more than a little + adj. 表“非常”的意思。 
  ㈡ no more ... than与no less than的结构 
  ⑴ no more than从结构上来看有个变体形式是“not ... any more than”,表达的意思是“同……一样不……”,表达的是类比关系;句子在翻译时有两种方式:先译主句后译than引导的从句,“……不能……”,就如than从句中的“不能……一样”;或者先译than引导的从句后译主句“正如than从句中的……不能……”,所以,“……同样不能……”。需要注意的是than后面的句子为肯定形式,但要翻译成否定的意思。例如:
  ① The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.心脏和胃一样都不具有智慧,因为他们都要受大脑控制。 
  ② Jack is no more diligent than John. 杰克不勤奋,约翰也不勤奋。 
  注意如下区别: 
  not more ... than ... 表“不如……;没有到……的程度”(前者不如后者)。例如: 
  Jack is not more diligent than John.杰克不如约翰勤奋。 
  ⑵ no less than表“不少于;多达”的意思。例如: 
  ① This book has been translated into no less than 30 languages.此书已被翻译成多达30种语言。 
  ② The professor asked us to write the essay with no less than 800 words. 教授要求我们写一篇不少于800字的文章。 
  ㈢ nothing more than与nothing less than结构 
  ⑴ 因之前所提到过more than表示“不仅仅是……”,在其前面加上否定词nothing,则表示“只不过是……;不仅仅是”的意思。例如: 
  There are always concerns that traditional dances performed in a theatre are nothing more than a spectacle.人们总是认为传统的舞蹈只不过是很壮观而已。 
  ⑵ nothing less than是nothing more than的反义短语,表示“不亚于…;相当的;简直是”的意思。例如: 
  Our performance in the play promises to be nothing less than wonderful.我们在戏剧中的表演将是相当精彩的。 
  His appearance in the show was nothing less than a event.他在演出中的亮相简直是轰动一时的事件。 
㈣ rather than与other than的区别 
  考题: 
  We are taught a business letter should be written in a formal style __________ in a personal one. 
  A. rather than B. other than 
  C. better than D. less than 
  解析: A。句意:在学校里,老师教我们商业信函应该采用正式的文体来写,而不是用私人化的风格来写。可知rather than “而不是”较为合适。 
  例句: 
  ① All parts of the building other than the windows are in good conditions.这家房子除了窗户外,其它的都完好无缺。 
  ② The two reporters agreed to switch roles for once and be the interviewees rather than the interviewers in order to let us know about their work and how the news we read is made.两位记者同意交换一下角色,做一次被采访者而不是采访者,以便我们了解他们的工作,了解我们所见的新闻是怎样制作出来的。(人教高二unit 2 P11) 
  由此可见other than相当于different from意思是“不同于…;除了……以外其它的……”;rather than的意思是“而不是”的意思。 
  常见的与than搭配的一些习惯用语: 
  ① It’s better than doing sth. “总比做某事要好”。 
  Maybe I am not well paid, but it’s better than being out of a job.或许我的薪酬不高,但总比失业好。 
  ② be no better than ... “几乎与……一样糟” 
  be not better than ... “前者不如后者” 
  He is no better than a thief.他比小偷好不了多少。 
  考题: 
  Though he started late, Mr Guo played the piano as well as, if____, Miss Liu. (2007陕西卷) 
  A. not better than B. not better 
  C. no better than D. no better 
  解析:A。句意:虽然起步晚,但如果说郭先生弹钢琴的水平不比刘小姐好,那至少也和她弹得一样好。句中是个省略句,完整句式为if he is not better than Miss Liu。 
  ③ none other than “不是别人而正是” 
  The winner of “director of the year” was none other than Zhang Yi mou.赢得“年度最佳导演”称号的不是别人,正是张艺谋。 
  ④ would rather ... than ... / prefer to do ... rather than (to) do“宁愿……而不愿……”,than后面的to常省略。 
  He prefers to live in the countryside rather than stay in the city. = He would rather live in the countryside than stay in the city. 他宁愿住乡下也不愿呆在城里。 
  考题: 
  Rather than ___________ on a crowded bus, he always prefers ________a bicycle.(NMET 1994) 
  A. ride; ride B. riding; ride 
  C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding 
  解析: C。考查prefer to do ... rather than do结构。 
  ⑤ no sooner ... than ... 表“一……就……”的意思,引导主从复合句,如果no sooner置于句首,主句应用部分倒装和过去完成时,从句使用一般过去时。例如: 
  No sooner had I mailed the letter than I realized her address had been changed.我一寄出那封信就意识到她的地址已经改变了。 
  考题: 
  —Did Linda see the traffic accident? 
  —No, no sooner ___________than it happened. (2006天津卷) 
  A. had she gone B. she had gone 
  C. has she gone D. she has gone 
  解析: A。no sooner ... than ... 结构中,其中no sooner之后应用过去完成时,than之后用一般现在时,当no sooner位于句首时要进行部分倒装。 
  ⑥ more often than not “往往;多半;通常”。 
  During the holiday season, the trains are crowded more often than not.在度假季节,火车往往很拥挤。 
  ⑦ less than “少于;不到”。 
  考题: 
  I used to earn ___________ than a pound a week when I first started work.(2006陕西卷) 
  A. a little B. a few C. fewer D. less 
  解析: 考查less than的用法。句意:我刚开始工作的时候每周的收入不到一英镑。 
  ⑧ There is nothing better than ... “没有比……更好的了”。 
  There is nothing better than a hot coffee in such cold winter.没有什么比在寒冷的冬天里喝上一杯热咖啡更好的事了。 
  ⑨ more than ... can ... “完全不能;简直不可能”。 
  The beauty of that country is more than I can describe.我无法用言语形容那乡村的景色之美。

 

在2004年的高考试卷中,有下面两题与than有关,你会做吗?

    1. He speaks English well indeed, but of course not _________ a native speaker.

    A. as fluent as B. more fluent than

    C. so fluently as D. much fluently than

    2. Lizzie was _________ to see her friend off at the airport.

    A. a little more than sad

    B. more than a little sad

    C. sad more than a little

    D. a little more sad than

    参考答案:1. C 2. B

    在英语学习中,than是出现频率较高的一个词,因此掌握than的用法不仅要从词法的角度去考虑,而且还要注意其构成的句型和短语,本文拟就其用法归纳如下,以期对大家有所帮助。

    一、在表意愿的句型中,构成 would do sth rather than do sth, would rather do sth than do sth或prefer to do sth rather than do sth结构,意为“宁愿做……而不……”。例如:

    The soldiers would rather die than surrender.

    In winter the children prefer to watch TV at home rather than go camping.

    二、构成的短语

    o sooner …than意为“一……就……”,引导时间状语从句,且当此结构置于句首时,主句要倒装。例如:

    I had no sooner reached home than it began to rain.

    No sooner had I reached home than it began to rain.

    三、表示比较倍数的句型

    A+谓语+数词+times+形容词/副词的比较级+than+B。例如:

    This classroom is twice bigger than that one.

    四、用比较级结构表示最高级的含义

    其常用的句型有:

    ①主语+谓语+比较级+than+the others/anyone else/any (other)+单数名词/any of the others/any of the other+复数名词。例如:

    China is larger than any other country in Asia.

    China is larger than any country in Africa.

    ②“No one +谓语+比较级+than+sb”或“No other+单数名词+谓语+比较级+than+sb/sth”。例如:

    No one can be more fit for his office than he is.

    No other river is longer than the Changjiang River in Asia.

    五、单纯表示比较级的句型是: A+谓语+比较级+than+B。例如:

    Li Ping is taller than his brother.

    六、短语 no more than的用法

    ①用在名词或数词前,意为“仅仅;只是”,相当于only。例如:

    His school education added up to no more than one year.

    ②用在形容词或副词的比较级前,意为“同……一样不”。例如:

    This machine is no better than that one.

    七、短语 not more than的用法

    ①用在比较级句型中,表示“前者不如后者”。例如:

    The new edition is not more expensive than the old edition.

    ②接数词时,意为“至多;不超过”,相当于at most。例如:

    There are not more than 800 workers in that factory.

    八、短语 no less than的意思是“(和……)一样;不少(于……)”。例如:

    She is no less active than she used to be.

    九、短语 more than的用法

    ①用在数词前意为“超过”,相当于over;

    ②用在名词前,意为“不只是;不仅仅是”;

    ③“more than a little+形容词”意为“非常”,相当于very。例如:

    There are more than 1,000 workers in that factory now.

    The bookshop is more than a place of business for some.

    注意:more A than B意为“与其说B不如说A”。例如:

    The book seems to be more a dictionary than a grammar book.

    十、其他短语 other than(除了),rather than(而不是)的用法,记住词义即可。例如:

    I can ' t do other than obey.

    He, rather than you, should be punished for the mistake.



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