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类似于to my joy短语结构的语法分析  

2014-05-16 12:18:27|  分类: 高频词汇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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“to +one’s+情感名词”是英语中一个十分有用的结构,主要表示某人由于某事的发生而唤起其内心的某种情感,通常译为“令某人……的是”“使某人感到……的是”。这类结构在学习时应弄清以下几个方面。

一、该结构主要适用哪些名词

能用于该结构的名词非常有限,常见的有 admiration(羡慕), amazement(惊奇), amusement(娱乐), annoyance(烦恼), astonishment (惊奇), delight(欣喜), despair(绝望), disappointment(失望), embarrassment(难堪), happiness, horror(恐怖), joy(高兴), puzzlement(疑惑), regret(遗憾), relief(放心), satisfaction(满意), shame(羞愧), sorrow(悲伤), surprise(惊讶)等。如:

To my amazement, he arrived on time.

令我惊异的是,他居然准时赶到了。

To my great amusement his false beard fell off.

使我感到极其好笑的是,他的假胡子掉了下来。

To his annoyance, he discovered they hadn’t waited.

他发现他们没有等他而感到十分烦恼。

To his no small astonishment the woman began to laugh.

使他吃惊不小的是这个女人竟开始笑了起来。

To her embarrassment, she couldn’t remember his name.

令她感到困窘的是,她记不起他的名字了。

To my shame I never thanked him for his kindness.

我感到惭愧的是对他的好意我从未表示过感谢。

注:有时可将两个名词并列使用。如:

To her surprise and joy, she was awarded first prize.

使她又惊又喜的是,她获得了一等奖。

To her great disappointment and annoyance, she failed in the English examination again.

使她极为失望和苦恼的是,她的英语考试又没有及格。

二、如何强调该结构的语气

若要加强该结构的语气,通常有两种方式:

1. 在名词前加 great, deep, utter 等形容词修饰。如:

To our great delight the day turned out fine.

使我们感到十分高兴的是,天气转晴了。

To my great disappointment I failed to get the job.

我没得到那份工作,大为失望。

To his great disappointment, she wasn’t on the train.

令他大大失望的是她不在那列火车上。

To my utter delight he lent me the money I needed.

使我十分高兴的是,他借给了我需要的钱。

To my deep indignation, he pretended not to know about it.

使我十分愤慨的是,他假装不了解此事。

2. 在整个短语前加副词greatly, much 等修饰。

如:

Greatly to my regret, I cannot attend the party.

很可惜的是,我无法参加聚会。

He has succeeded, much to the delight of his parents.

他成功了,这使他父母都非常高兴。

Much to my surprise the door was unlocked.

使我大为吃惊的是,门没有锁。

Much to my regret I am unable to accept your invitation.

很抱歉,我不能接受你的邀请。

三、该结构在句中的位置

该结构通常位于句首,但有时也可位于句末,甚至句中。

如:

He broke it, greatly to my annoyance.

他打破了那东西,这使我非常气恼。

I learned to my sorrow that he was killed in the accident.

我获悉他在事故中丧生而深感悲痛。

I discovered to my horror that my passport was missing.

使我惊恐的是,我发现我的护照不见了。

The work was done to his own satisfaction, but in my opinion it was badly done.

这工作他做得很满意,但在我看来,却是做得很糟。

四、该结构的变体

该结构通常的变体是“to the+情感名词+of sb”。

如:

To the surprise of everybody the man was the girl’s father.

使大家吃惊的是,这个人就是这个女孩的父亲。

He fell in the water, much to the entertainment of the children.

他掉进水里,逗得孩子们乐不可支。

To the delight of his proud parents, he has made a full recovery.

令他自自豪的父母高兴的是,他完全恢复了。

Practice today:

Choose the best answer for each of the following sentences

今天的内容有点少,所以题就有点多,到今天介词就全部讲完了,明天开始我们就开始讲连词

1.In order to change attitudes__________ employing women, the government is bringing in new laws.

A. about       B. of

C. towards     D. on

2. You can’t wear a blue jacket __________ that shirt — it’ll look terrible.

A. on B. above

C. up D. over

3. __________ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend.

A. With B. Besides

C. As for D. Because of

4. It was a pity that great writer died __________his works unfinished.

A. for B. with

C. from D. of

5. I feel that one of my main duties __________ a teacher is to help the students to become better learners.

A. for B. by

C. as D. with

6. The accident is reported to have occurred __________the first Sunday in February.

A. at B. on

C. in D. to

答案与解析:

1. C。an attitude towards / to…为固定搭配。

2. D。因为over可表示“附于某人或某物之上并将之部分或全部遮住”,而其余三者都无此用法。on在…的表面上(与某物接触); above高于; up向上。

3. A。因为to worry about是宾语补足语,选项中只有with才能接“宾语+宾补”(复合宾语)。此处用with的复合结构表示原因。

4. B。因为unfinished是宾语his works的补足语。选项中只有with能接“宾语+宾补”,此处用with的复合结构作伴随状语。

5. C。因为as 在表示职业、身份的名词前,意为“作为”。表示“被”的by、表示“和…一起”的with很易排除; 而for是用以引出不定式的逻辑主语,请比较:It is a duty for a teacher to help....

6. B。表示具体的某一天、星期几,或者具体某天或星期几的上午、下午或晚上,用介词on。表示钟点或时刻用at,还有at noon, at night, at daybreak/dawn。表示年、季度、月份、星期等不是具体的某一天,都用in。

 

解读“to one’s+情感类名词”结构

一、该结构的句法功能
  “ to +one's + 情感类名词结构在句中常用作插入语,表示说话人的态度、观点等。一般位于句首,并用逗号将其与句子的主干部分分隔开,其作用相当于结果状语,句子的主干部分是引起这一结果的原因。同学们若能在书面表达中适当运用这一结构,可以增强文章的感染力。例如:
  To my surprise I was the first one to come to the classroom this morning.
  使我感到惊讶的是,今天早上我是第一个来到教室的。
  To his parents' disappointment he failed in the exam.
  令他父母失望的是,他没有通过这次考试。
  二、用于该结构中的情感类名词 
  用于这一结构的名词通常是一些表示高兴、惊讶、悲伤、满意、失望、遗憾等表示情感的名词。常见的主要有: astonishment (惊讶), amazement (惊愕),annoyance (烦恼,恼火), delight (高兴), dismay (惊慌、愕然),disappointment (失望), joy (高兴), relief (欣慰,释然), regret (遗憾), surprise (惊讶), satisfaction (满意), sorrow (悲伤)等。例如:
  To my great relief the difficulties were all overcome.
  使我感到欣慰的是,困难全都克服了。
  To our amazement the face of the city keeps on changing every day.
  令我们大为惊异的是,这座城市的面貌每天都在发生变化。
  三、该结构与其它结构的替换
  这一结构可转换为“ to the + 情感类名词+ of sb ”。例如:
  “ To the great joy of me I pick up a lot of passengers during rush hours ” said the taxi driver. 出租车司机说:令我开心的是,高峰时期我拉到了很多乘客。
  To the delight of the teacher some of his students become engineers.
  令这位老师高兴的是,他的一些学生成为了工程师。
  四、该结构的强调句式
  “ to one's + 情感类名词结构的强调句式有两种: 1. 在介词 to 前面加 much 来加强程度; 2. 在情感类名词前用 great deep 等形容词修饰。例如:
  Much to my annoyance he kept silent about some of the things that happened at school.
  令我大为恼火的是,他对在学校发生的一些事情保持沉默。
  To his deep sorrow his grandfather died in a car accident yesterday.
  令他悲痛万分的是,他爷爷昨天死于车祸。

 

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