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besides; except; except for; but用法的区别  

2014-04-23 13:04:02|  分类: 高频词汇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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这四个介词或者短语都可以表示“除了…”的意思。但except仅表示“除了…”,排除在外,后面可以接that,what,when等引导的从句;而besides表示“除了…还有…”的意思,表示包含在内;except for表示“除了…”,它引出一个与前面的词相反的原因或者事例;but的意思与except接近,它主要与某些不定代词如nothing,all,anything, no one,anyone等连用。例如: 
"Except for one old lady, the bus was empty."

  公共汽车上要不是坐了一位老太太就是空的。

  She can do everything except cook.

  除了做饭之外她什么都会。

  He had considered everything except the weather.

  "他什么都想过,唯独没考虑到天气。"

  I know nothing about it except what I have read in the papers.

  "除了在报上读到的以外,我对这件事一无所知。"

  Most of the Chinese people usually go to work on the bike except when it rains.

  "除了雨天,大多数中国人一般都骑自行车上班。"

  Besides milk and cheese, we need vegetables.

  除了牛奶和干酪外,我们还需要蔬菜。

  Besides football, I like playing basketball and table tennis.

  除了足球以外,我还喜欢打篮球和乒乓球。 No one but me passed the exam yesterday.

  昨天除了我以外没别人考及格。

  Nobody but Li Ming talked to Lao Wang today.

  除了李明,今天没有人跟老王说话。


except, except for/that, besides和but的用法习题:
1. No one knew Mr Beson's address _______ his daughter. 
A. except        B. excepts    C. only   D. besides 
2. Do you know any other foreign language ______ English? 
A. except   B. but    C. beside    D. besides 
3. I know nothing about the young lady ________ she is from Beijing. 
A. except     B. except for       C. except that            D. besides 
4. Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong. 
A. admit          B. admitted                   C. admitting                   D. to admit 
析:Key:1. A 2. D 3. C 4. A。由此,我们可以看出except, except for/that, besides和but 的用法。
except, except for/that, besides和but都有"除……之外"的意思,但用法各异,现就它们的用法进行分析比较: 
一、except的用法--"排除式" 
except意为"只有……除外;除去……",后跟名词或代词作宾语,强调从整体中除去部分,即except后的部分不包括在整体之内。因此,常和all, everything, no one, nothing等词一起使用。其判别标志是:除去的与保留的是"同类项"。例如: 
1. All of them went out for a walk ________ John. 
A. besides                      B. except                      C. beside                    D. excepts 
2. Everyone is here ________ Xiao Wang and me. 
A. except                       B. besides                       C. beside                   D. excepts 
析:Key:1. B 2. A。因除去的与保留的是"同类项",且1、2题中有信息词All、Everyone。 
二、except for/that的用法--"排除否定式" 
except 除后跟名词、代词作宾语外,还可跟介词,也可跟从句。 
(1)except for...是"除了因为……;要不是……;除去……一点外"的意思,表示"对一个人或事物,先做一个整体评价,然后再就局部提出一点看法"。即一部分被肯定,另一部分被否定,这就是所谓的"排除否定式"。其判别标志是:除去的与保留的"不是同类项"。例如: 
1. It was dark in the city ________ a few weak lights. 
A. except for                      B. except                        C. besides                     D. but for 
2. Your composition is very good ________ a few spelling mistakes. 
A. except that                      B. except for                   C. besides                      D. beside 
析:Key: 1. A 2. B。因为除去的与保留的"不是同类项",故选except for。 
(2)except that... 也是"除去……一点外"的意思,但应注意恰当地使用引导词。若从句句意和结构完整,只需用引导词that。例如: 
1. The suit fitted him well ________ the colour was a little brighter. 
A. except for                     B. except that                      C. except when                    D. besides 
析:Key:B。本题题意为"除色彩艳了一点儿外,这套衣服很适合他",从句the colour was a little brighter句意和结构完整,只需用引导词that,故选except that。 
2. -Can you tell me all about the earthquake? 
-Sorry,I know nothing about it ________ I read in the newspaper. 
A. except                       B. except for                C. except what                  D. except that 
析:Key:C。因从句中read为及物动词,且其后无宾语,故选except what。 
3. Mr Green usually goes to work by bus ________ it rains. 
A. besides                   B. except when         C. except what                            D. beside 
析:Key:B。由于it rains为从句,故排除A、D,且rains为不及物动词,不需要宾语,故排除C。except when 意为"除了当……的时候"。 
(3)except for与except that有时可互相转换。例如: 
1. Your composition is very good except for a few spelling mistakes. 
=Your composition is very good except that there are a few spelling mistakes. 
2. The village is very quiet except for some birds singing in the woods. 
=The village is very quiet except that there are some birds singing in the woods. 
三、besides的用法--"包括式" 
besides相当于as well as,意为"除了……以外还有……",即"除去一部分还有另外一部分"的意思,表示besides 后面的部分包括在整体之内。例如: 
1. Does John know any other foreign language ________ French. 
A. except                      B. but                C. besides                    D. beside
析:Key:C。由本题中的信息词"any other foreign language",可知选besides。 
四、but的用法--"排除式" 
but是"除了……以外"的意思,相当于except。 
(1)but后也可以接名词或代词作宾语。例如: 
1. They all went to the park ________ Mike and me. 
A. besides                           B. except for                        C. but                      D. beside 
析:Key: C。因为all是信息词,且they与Mike and me是"同类项",根据句意应选C。 
(2)but常与下列词连用:a.否定词no one, none, nothing等; b.疑问词who, what等; c.不定代词all, everyone等。例如: 
1. Nothing but disaster would come from such a plan.这个计划只能招灾惹祸,别无益处。 
2. Who but Tom would do such a thing?除了汤姆以外还有谁愿意干这种事? 
(3)but后可接动词不定式。注意:当but前面有实义动词do以及其相应形式作谓语动词时,则其后跟不带"to"的动词不定式,反之加"to"。例如: 
1. David could do nothing but ________ his teacher yesterday afternoon. 
A. help           B. helped                C. helping              D. to help 
析:key:A。do nothing but...后应接动词原形,意为"除做……外什么也不做"。 
2. The enemy had no choice but ________ their arms and ________ . 
A. lie down;give in     B. lay down;give in      C. to lay down;give in      D. to lie down;to give in 
析:Key:C。have no choice but后应接带to 的动词不定式,且and后的成分与动词不定式之间存在并列关系,故选C。 
注意:but for是"要不是;没有……"的意思,常用于虚拟语气。例如: 
But for your help, I would have failed. 要是没有你的帮助, 我早就失败了。 
此外:apart from也可表示此意,其用法相当与besides, except for

 

besides; except; except for; but用法的区别 - 玉兔王子 - bilixiang的博客

idea的用法 - 玉兔王子 - bilixiang的博客besides, but, except的用法区别 

besides; except; except for; but用法的区别 
Except与besides,except for, except+从句,as well as ,apart from, in addition to的用法和区别 
不定式省略to的九种情况 
非谓语动词:不定式省略to的九种情况 




1 The square was empty, _____ the giant horse.

2 The story is interesting _____ some spelling mistakes.

3 We all went swinming _____ him.

4 What other subject do you know _____ Chinese ?

5 We go to school every day _____ Saturday and Sunday.

6 He went nowhere(没有地方) _____ to the supermarket.

7 The box is empty , some toys.

8 All the volunteers are here _____ Jack.

9 Miss Li could think of nothing to say _____ that she was so sad.

 参考答案:5, 6, 8, 9 except        1, 2, 7 except for          3,4 besides


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